This is a second post in a series on DNA profiling in California.
DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling is the process of determining an individual’s DNA characteristics. DNA tests can be performed using a sample of a person’s blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid, or other tissue to create a unique DNA profile that then gets matched to a specific person. DNA fingerprinting is commonly used as a forensic technique in criminal investigations. At crime scenes, evidence is collected and tested. Once a DNA profile is created, law enforcement looks to match it with other people who may or may not have been at the crime scene. The profile or profiles created can include multiple suspects, the victim, or an unknown person. Through a process of elimination, successful DNA investigations are able to identify the perpetrator and support an arrest and then conviction for a crime.
How is a DNA sample collected?
People are mostly familiar with the buccal smear DNA sample collection process. A cotton swab is rubbed on the inside of the mouth and the saliva is tested to create a unique DNA sample. This process is the most widespread because it is easy to administer and non-invasive. Other methods collect a sample of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal lubrication, and other appropriate fluid or tissue from physical personal items like toothbrush or razor.
Whose DNA Gets Collected?
Until January 1, 2009, only adults arrested and convicted for murder, voluntary manslaughter, a felony PC 290 sex offense, or an attempt to commit one of those crimes, on or after November 3, 2004 were subject to DNA collection. Today, all adults arrested for any felony offense are subject to DNA collection. That includes:
- All newly convicted felony offenders (adult or juvenile;
- Persons currently in custody or on probation, parole, or any other supervised release after conviction prior to November 3, 2004; and
- Anyone currently on probation or any other supervised release for any offense with a prior felony must provide a DNA sample.
(See California Penal Code Sections 295, 296, and 296.1)
When is DNA Collected?
Sample collection is an administrative consequence of a conviction and is the responsibility of law enforcement or the courts to ensure that samples are taken from people in conjunction with their conviction or as soon as possible thereafter. A person must be under the jurisdiction or control of the court, government, or criminal justice system to be subject to the requirement. People in custody, on probation, on parole, or on other release or supervision are affected by this law.
Arsonists and Sexual Offenders
Arsonists and sexual offenders are required to submit their DNA sample as part of the adjudication of their criminal case. DNA samples are collected from arsonists and sexual offenders even if the underlying offense was a misdemeanor.
Check back next week for the next installment of DNA Profiling in California in which we look at how special groups, juveniles, and criminal suspects, are handled. Continue reading